Just how bad is the ICO’s draft age appropriate design code?

Last month I worked with Coadec, the policy voice of Britain’s tech startups, to lead on the formulation of their response to the ICO’s draft age appropriate design code. I wrote this draft document as a roadmap for the work, although what follows here are very much my own personal thoughts, not Coadec’s.

I would like to explain – as a policy wonk, a technologist, a privacy campaigner, and as a parent – why the draft Code is one of the worst proposals on internet legislation I’ve ever seen.

What is the draft Age Appropriate Design Code?

The ICO, the UK’s data protection regulator, has published a draft Age Appropriate Design Code for public consultation. This has been done under an amendment to the Data Protection Act 2018 requiring it to “prepare a code of practice which contains such guidance as the Commissioner considers appropriate on standards of age-appropriate design of relevant information society services which are likely to be accessed by children.”

The ICO is presenting the draft Code’s requirements as a GDPR matter, a task mandated by GDPR, or a requirement for GDPR compliance. It is not. The draft Code is an amendment to a piece of domestic legislation (Amendment 123), but was not requested, mandated, or required by Europe in any way, shape, or form. Yet because the Data Protection Act is the domestic implementation of a European law, the requirements presented in the draft Code will create a substantial shift and amending of the Data Protection Act which will move the UK completely out of step with Europe.

This will create the ironic situation where the ICO will be responsible for leading the UK’s regulatory divergence away from GDPR after Brexit.

Who must comply with the Code?

The draft Code would be applicable to all under-18s in the UK, regardless of whether the site or service they are accessing is based within the UK, and would apply to any information society service likely to be accessed by children. This means any site, app, service, or product which could conceivably be accessed by a British child at any time, even if it is not targeted at children.

The draft code states that “if your service is likely to be accessed by children but you don’t know which users are children, you must apply the code to all users.” So you – yes, you – have a simple choice: overhaul everything from the ground up in case children might access it, age gate every user to identify the children, or find out how many children access the service by collecting data on all users.

This is a staggering alteration to the fundamental right to access the internet – and to the business models of every company doing business online in the UK. After all, the only way to determine if an ISS is being accessed by young people is by collecting data about them.

This mandates every business with an online presence which could conceivably be accessed by an under 18 at any point in its lifecycle to engage in personally identifiable corporate surveillance of all users.

Extraterritorial applicability

Non-UK businesses targeting UK users will be required to comply with the Code. Of course, the US tech giants whose abuses have largely inspired this Code will find the compliance requirements – and costs – easy to bear. For other non-UK businesses, many of whom are still reeling from the compliance process for GDPR while bracing for the incoming US Federal privacy legislation, there is only one logical option: they will block UK users altogether rather than be compelled to invest time and money into a nigh-impossible compliance process which, appallingly, equivocates their noncompliance with child exploitation.

At a time when the UK tech sector is subject to no less than eight ongoing regulatory processes, an openly hostile DCMS, and the catastrophic impact of Brexit, the draft Code has been written in a way that sends the most hostile message possible to the tech sector both here and abroad. If the goal of the draft Code is to trigger an exodus of tech businesses and investment, it will succeed.

When is a standard not a standard?

The draft Code, despite discussing “code standards”, provides no actual coding standards – such as technical guidance – on how its provisions should be achieved. The actual drafting and interpretation of the Code’s provisions will be outsourced to you – yes, you – to solve on your own time and expense.

If the UK truly wants to lead the way in online child protection, it should do so on a global scale through open standards, not on a national level through closed coregulation. The Digital Charter’s vision of Britain making the internet safer would be better achieved by collaborating with working groups and standards bodies, such as the WC3, to draft actual open technical standards, similar to the WCAG standards for people with disabilities.

As it stands now, the draft Code is a blueprint for a repeat of the cookie law fiasco, mandating you to deploy poorly designed, hostile, and counterproductive verification processes which will do nothing to serve the purpose for which they were intended or protect the people they were meant to help.

How much is this going to cost you?

Crucially, the draft Code makes no mention of the costs which businesses can expect to incur to come into compliance.

Those unknown costs, which will be substantial, will also be a means of outsourcing the costs of the ICO becoming the UK’s de facto child protection regulator to the private sector.

What are the draft Code’s standards?

The consultation proposes sixteen areas which you must take into consideration.

Best interests of the child

This section tasks you – yes, you – with the following responsibilities towards children:

keep them safe from exploitation risks, including the risks of commercial or sexual exploitation and sexual abuse; protect and support their health and wellbeing; protect and support their physical, psychological and emotional development; protect and support their need to develop their own views and identity; protect and support their right to freedom of association and play; recognise the role of parents in protecting and promoting the best interests of the child and support them in this task; and recognise the evolving capacity of the child to form their own view, and give due weight to that view.

While there absolutely are steps that we all can and should take to play their roles in supporting those processes, this section tasks businesses with so many fundamental obligations over the personal health and wellbeing of children that it amounts to a demand for corporate co-parenting.

Age-appropriate application

To make the world a better place for children and young people, you – yes, you – will have three options:

  1. Apply the Code for all users as a default, meaning assume all users are adults, therefore limiting or blocking an under 18’s ability to access or use a service;
  2. Implement an age gate collecting personal data about all users, and develop multiple variants of the product or service for five defined age bands, ranging from infancy to the cusp of adulthood, in addition to an ‘adult’ version;
  3. Implement an age gate collecting personal data about all users, to let in adult users and and block younger users from accessing the service altogether.

To implement the age gate, all businesses within the Code’s scope will be required to collect age verification data, such as a passport or credit card, for all users, and to process and retain it in full accordance with GDPR. This age gating will render all internet usage access in the UK personally identifiable to an individual, creating massive private databases of personal internet access.

This section is nothing less than a mandate to lock the entire British internet – every site, service, and app – behind an age-gated surveillance system.

Demanding “robust age-verification mechanisms” of all users fundamentally alters the structure of global internet governance while outsourcing the compliance costs to UK businesses. This is well beyond ICO’s purview.

Oh, and by the way: the development of mandatory age gating will mean businesses being reliant on the only companies which will have age verification services available for cash-tight agile businesses to deploy within a three-month compliance window: adult entertainment giants. The biggest winner from the Code will be the porn industry.


This section requires you – yes, you – to impose adult concepts such as GDPR-standard privacy policies onto five broad age bands, including the tiniest toddlers. For the youngest children in the earliest stages of personality development, issues of data privacy will not be seen as such; they will be seen as issues of safety.

I am incandescently concerned that this section conflates issues of general data protection rights with issues of immediate personal safety and risk, and tasks every business with an online presence to implement that conflation as a code of practice.

The draft code, for example, suggests that developers should “provide audio or video prompts telling children to leave things are as they are or get help from a parent or trusted adult if they try and change any high privacy default settings” – for children under the age of five.

Likewise, the draft Code provides a suggested mockup of a consent window which says “If you don’t understand or aren’t sure about this then you should leave the setting as it is, and we won’t use your information in this way.” This is a extraordinary amount of self-doubt and uncertainty to introduce into a six year old’s thought process.

The text noting that “If your online service includes a physical product, for example a connected toy or speaker you should include the icon on your packaging, highlighting online reporting tools as a product feature, and find ways to highlight reporting tools in a prominent way even if the product is not screen based” mentions nothing about the primary reporting tool in that situation: the parent or adult.

These draft requirements for transparency are a recipe for creating a culture of fear. This is not a role you should be compelled to play.

Detrimental use of data

This section asks you – yes, you – to not take actions which go against industry codes of practice, other regulatory provisions or Government advice. This is a monumental swathe of guidance to consider in defining detriment, most of which has no legal basis. Additionally, the concept of “detriment” is itself the subject of a separate consultative process (the online harms white paper).

Policies and community standards

This section asks you – yes, you – to be more proactive in publicising terms, policies and community standards, but does not say what they are.

The draft notes “If you make commitments to users about the content or other aspects of your online service then you need to have adequate systems in place to ensure that you meet those commitments. So if you say that the content of your online service is suitable for children within a certain age range then you need to have systems in place to ensure that it is.” This conflates systems, meaning internal processes, with policies, meaning public-facing statements. And it does so in a way which could be abused as a means of compelling you to disclose proprietary business information or violate non-disclosure agreements.

Default settings

This section largely repeats the work that you already did ahead of GDPR.

Data minimisation

This section largely repeats the work that you did ahead of GDPR. However, the ICO is not cognisant of the contradiction inherent in requiring businesses not specifically targeting children to nevertheless collect data about children’s usage, and their identification as children, to determine whether that site or service is being accessed by them. In other words, to minimise data collection about children, you must maximise it, to the extent that it becomes a primary business activity.

Data sharing

This section, while largely repeating GDPR’s provisions, shifts the concept to an intangible measure of “general wellbeing” rather than one of tangible data protection compliance – a measure it is not for you to determine.


The safe, responsible, and legal leveraging of location data carries a huge consumer benefit to both adults and young people, and is helping innovation to flourish. I was therefore appalled to note that this section associates the use of location data with “abduction, physical and mental abuse, sexual abuse and trafficking.”

This hysteria could lead to young adults being infantilised under rules prepared for toddlers; rules which could, for example, ban them from being able to use a car share app to get home because it uses geolocation data.

Parental controls

This section mandates parental controls from a peculiarly legalistic standpoint, compelling adults to prioritise data protection frameworks over their own parental instincts. For example, within the suggested guidelines for information across age bands, there is a preoccupation with “provid{ing} parents with information about the child’s right to privacy under the UNCRC”. Surely, advising parents to respect their children’s right to privacy as a matter of supporting their growth, development, and safety is a more reasonable approach, as opposed to mandating an explainer on parents’ role in helping the ICO to uphold international treaty obligations.

The suggestions for all five age bands also propose that you should “provide a clear and obvious sign that indicates when monitoring or tracking is active”. Has consideration has been given to this requirement causing “parental monitoring blindness” – akin to cookie consent popup windows, something so ubiquitous it becomes ignored?

That’s all aside from the obvious implications of children over the age of 13 transitioning to adulthood under the watchful eye – perhaps a literal icon of one – of a constantly activated parental monitoring signal, and how this is in fact a violation of their personal privacy. How did their parents ever grow up without one?


The section on profiling is an alphabet soup, encompassing GDPR, PEGI, CAP, >18s, the advice of the CMO, and T&Cs on UGC. It compels you to take a dense and legalistic approach to one of the most critical threats to childrens’ wellbeing – algorithmic curation and profiling – they currently face.

Additionally, this section states that profiling is allowed if measures are in place to protect the child from “any harmful effects”, which ties in with the online harms white paper’s discussion on content/activities which are legal/harmful. As this Code would precede the outcome of the white paper consultation, this is an instance where the code would need to establish “harm” rather than following it, a guaranteed recipe for deviation from the actual final definition.

Nudge techniques

“Nudge techniques” has been misinterpreted, buzzword-style, as an inherently negative feature. Nudge techniques can be used positively, for example, to encourage children to protect their data, turn on their privacy settings, not disclose unnecessary information, and so forth.

The ICO should use more constructive phrasing, suggesting positive nudge techniques which would be deemed acceptable, while citing specific negative techniques and dark patterns which would be deemed unacceptable. Until then, this section risks throwing out the baby with the bathwater – literally.

Connected toys and devices

This section states “If you provide a connected toy or device, ensure you include effective tools to enable compliance with this code”.

What are those tools, who is responsible for creating them, and how will compliance be evaluated? Businesses accessing a Code of Practice expect to be given answers to questions like these within the code, not open ended questions to solve on their own time. The best answer to that question – the DCMS Code of Practice for iOT consumer security – is linked to as an external reference at the end of the section, but not discussed anywhere within it.

Related to that ambiguity, this section of the draft Code discusses practical questions, such as “Provide clear information about your use of personal data at point of purchase and on set-up” and “Avoid passive collection of personal data”. These are checkpoints for product and service developers to use. They are not tools for young people and their parents to use.

Online tools

As with the section on Transparency, while this section is ostensibly about helping children to exercise their data protection rights and report concerns over the misuses of their data, there is a clear conflation of immediate personal safety needs with frankly advanced GDPR rights such as data portability.

For example, this section recommends that you create an “I need help” button for the tiniest children to discuss their data rights with an adult. I can assure you that no three-year-old will be pushing that button to file a subject access request.

Data protection impact assessments

At first glance, this section may seem to be a duplicate of guidance on DPIAs which ICO provided ahead of GDPR. However, this section suggests several new and specific questions regarding children, and requires businesses whose services could possibly be accessed by one to do a child-specific DPIA. This effectively moves the goalposts for businesses which have already used DPIAs, whether their services target children or not.

As it stands, this section mandates fresh DPIA processes for everyone.

Governance and accountability

As with the section on Policies and Community Standards, this section asks you to provide more clarity on internal procedures without stating what kinds of processes will be mandatory and expected.

The bottom line

As children grow, evolve, and approach adulthood, every day of their lives is a delicate exercise in redefining trust as they create their own identities and worldviews. As it stands, this draft Code will mean that our children will grow up sheltered, shattered, and shamed, as their outlooks and formative experiences are shaped under a mountain of warnings, age gates, and surveillance – all of which must, by law, be crafted to send a clear message that the world is not to be trusted, and neither are you.

And we – yes, we – will be expected, on the presumption of our guilt, bad faith, and complicity, and under grave warnings of penalties, fines, and enforcement action, to be responsible for sending that message.

We all have a role to play in making the web a better place, as do all aspects of our society. This draft Code does not respect that role, nor does it respect you, nor does it actually respect the young people it means to protect.

By compelling you to engage in corporate co-parenting, the obliteration of young people’s privacy, and the lockdown of the entire British internet, the draft Code is a blueprint for creating insecure children and stunted adults who are unable to mature away from their parents, safely discern their environments, or trust their own judgement.

For that matter, it also co-opts you – yes, you – into building a decentralised surveillance apparatus over the entire British population in the name of “the best interest of the child”.

A better solution, grounded in technical standards, healthy cooperation, and practical applicability, must be found which can help us all to facilitate the safeguarding of young children, to provide young adults with the confidence to learn how to safeguard themselves, and to allow those approaching adulthood to deploy their safeguarding abilities in becoming functional adults.

The draft Code, in its current form, does not present one.